Wastewater Management
The Red Sea and Gulf of Aden environment is a rich and sensitive ecosystem which is very much vulnerable to pollution effects of coastal cities and agricultural activities. As population in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden may increase with increasing human pressure there is an increasing demand for water. The new advances in the desalination technology has enabled nations to supply abundant water to their residents, especially countries with available energy resources. As a result, wastewater produced increased. Without effective management the wastewater has to be discharged to the RS or GA with little reused in agriculture or in the industry. As the treated or untreated wastewater that is discharged to the RS or GA increases, the “self-cleansing capacity” of the Red Sea or the Gulf of Aden may be exceeded.
Pollution of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden will reduce the economic benefits obtained from these precious resources. This process will affect all countries, particularly those with less income. Therefore, discharge of untreated wastewater into the RS &GA has significant consequences.
PERSGA developed Wastewater guideline aims to present guidelines on wastewater management in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. Region and to provide recommendations for action to be taken to prevent pollution of the RS & GA ecosystem with wastewater.

Capacity Building

Demonstration of Effective Use of Treated Wastewater; Review and Finalization of Regional Guidelines
PERSGA has organized a three days meeting in AqabaJordan during the period May 4th - 6th 2015. The meeting comes in the framework of a running Demonstration Project supported by UNEP through the Global Wastewater Initiative. The workshop was facilitated by regional experts and joined about 25 specialists representing different stakeholders including government officials responsible for wastewater treatment and reuse; water companies; institutions involved in public awareness and supporting sustainable management in the coastal area “NGOs”; and academic institutions. The meeting was highly interactive, involved visits to different relevant activities and the discussions were highly enlightening.   

The Regional Project on Wastewater Management has been successfully running since 2013. It builds on well-established activities in PERSGA’s Program, particularly in protection of the coastal environment from land-based pollution and monitoring of the coastal and marine environment. It contributes to implementation the Regional Plan of Action and National Plans of Action prepared in collaboration between PERSGA and UNEP; and endeavors to establish a systematic approach for the assessment of wastewater sources and quantities as well as the nutrient load and pollution accumulation in the coastal and marine environment. The project advocates the use of low cost effective wastewater treatment systems to improve water reuse and relieve the burden of dumping untreated or partially treated wastewater into the marine environment.

The main objective of the Project in the years 2015, 2016 is to demonstrate existing activities in some coastal cities in the region and from other regions to provide a model that can be followed by other cities in: (i) protection of the coastal communities and the coastal and marine environment in PERSGA region from adverse effects associated with municipal wastewater discharge; and (ii) effective exploitation of the scarce freshwater resources through wastewater treatment and minimizing losses of treated wastewater by reuse in agriculture, landscaping and industry
Aqaba, Jordan provides a good example of effective reuse of treated wastewater, where all generated wastewater is treated and all treated wastewater is reused. Jordan has only 27 km of sea shore on the Red Sea. Since the country has adopted zero discharge policy, no point sources are allowed to be discharged into the Red SeaJordan has developed a Wastewater Master Plan and Jordanian Standards for wastewater reuse. The Aqaba Special Economic Zone Authority “ASEZA” applies restrict EIA regulations. The country also applies swimming water standards and measures the quality of the water in the Jordanian sector of the Gulf of Aqaba regularly.

Effluent from a lagoon in the north of Aqaba is used to feed a
wet land which has developed into  well known bird habitat and a tourist a traction as a bird observatory site. The Aqaba Special Economic Zone Authority applies an effective policy for reclaimed water reuse in irrigation, greening and for industry. Aqaba landscaping is served by a special network for ruse of treated
water. There is a special network also from the main mechanical WWTP to the industrial area to transmit the reclaimed water to be used in the production line. Privet enterprises in Aqaba have their own WWTP and they reuse their reclaimed water at their sites. The Aqaba Water Company makes good revenue from selling treating the waste water cover the cost of treatment and sustain the wastewater treatment plants.

Demonstration of this good practice that is adequately operational in Aqaba provides an ideal model to be transferred to other PERSGA countries coastal cities.

 National Workshop on Wastewater Management and the Risk of Seasonal Surface Runoff and Groundwater Contaminating on the Coastal Development in the Red Sea, Egypt Hurghada- Egypt, May 20th -21st 2015
The Regional Organization for Conservation of the Environment of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden “PERSGA” in collaboration with the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency “EEAA” organized a National Workshop on Wastewater Management and the Risk of Seasonal Surface Runoff and Contamination of Groundwater on the Coastal Development in the Red Sea Governorates. The workshop was supported by the United nations Environmental Program “UNEP” through the Global Wastewater Initiative “GWI II” and took place at the Centre of Emergency Mutual Aid in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden “EMARSGA” during the period May 20th - 22nd 2015. The workshop comes in implementation of the Regional Protocol of Protecting the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities, signed in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, September 2005; and in the EEAA concerns for managing and protecting the coastal and marine resources in the Red Sea Coastal Area.

The workshop was attended by about 3
5 participants representing different national authorities and agencies concerned with wastewater and flood risk management in the Red Sea governorate. It provided an effective platform for participants to exchange views and expertise on the subject of the workshop. Several aspects have been
discussed, including floods risk management, impact of wastewater from boats, wastewater treatment techniques and situation generally in Egypt and specifically in the Red Sea.

Participants were provided with full copies of the training materials including PowerPoint presentations. The participants expressed their satisfaction with the course and indicated  that th
ey will be using the material they learned in their job and will be able to spread the information to more colleagues. A set of recommendations has been stipulated at the end of the workshop that would help in protection of human and environmental health and support Egypt to deal more successfully with wastewater and manage surface water runoff to be benefit from fresh water and avoid risks. Some of the important recommendations are the necessity to enhance the wastewater treatment practices and recover the cost, which secures sustainability; to control wastewater discharge from pleasure and fishing boats; and take all necessary precautions to avoid use of primary treated wastewater in locations of seasonal runoff and locations that may lead to contamination of groundwater.  

 Regional Workshop on Monitoring Indicators of Wastewater Discharge on Coral Reefs
PERSGA organized a three day workshop on Monitoring Indicators of Wastewater Discharge on Coral Reefs in the Red Sea and Gulf of Ade. The workshop was delivered under the PERSGA UNEP SSFA on Wastewater Management and Pollution Loads Assessment in Coastal Cities of PERSGA Region Project, which contributes to implementation of two UNEP projects: “Managing Wastewater through the Global Wastewater Initiative”, in particular Component 1: Strengthening the normative basis for managing and monitoring the impacts of wastewater on the marine environment; and “Global Coral Reef Partnership”, in particular Output A: Indicators, methods, planning tools and strategic frameworks for management of coral reefs that builds resilience in the face of climate change. The workshop was conducted during the period October 05th-07th 2015 at the Centre of Emergency Mutual Aid in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden in HurghadaEgypt. The purpose of the workshop was to present and review a draft manual for monitoring indicators of the impact of wastewater discharge on coral reefs hereinafter referred to as “The Manual”. It joined about 25 specialists representing different stakeholders from PERSGA countries and witnessed effective interaction and fruitful interventions of the participants. An International Consultant Dr. Alexander Dawson Shepherd, UNEP representative Dr. Birguy Lamizana and PERSGA representative Dr. Mohammad Badran facilitated the workshop.
Additional policy justification for the manual comes from the 2012 Manila Declaration which identifies wastewater as  a priority source category of land-based pollution in the marine environment. Coral reefs are vulnerable to wastewater  pollution, which poses a threat both to coral reef ecosystem health and to the health and wellbeing of people that  depend on their ecosystem services. However, awareness of wastewater pollution impacts of coral reefs are limited,  monitoring of wastewater pollution and its impacts remains weak in most reef regions, and many island countries,  especially in the Pacific, are on a path to miss the sanitation target of the Millennium Development Goals…....  Subsequently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development adopted in September 2015 updates the millennium  development goals. It contains seventeen (17) goals all of which have some relevance to this manual but two of which, goal 6 and goal 14 are of particular relevance to this manual.

Goal 6 is “Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all”. The manual aims at enhancing capacity to deliver all the targets for this goal but two targets, target 6.3 and 6.6, are particularly relevant. Target 6.3 includes the requirement that water quality be improved by 2030 and target 6.6 includes the requirement that water-related ecosystems, including wetlands (though coral reefs are not mentioned) be protected and restored by 2020.

Goal 14 is “Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development”. The manual aims to enhance capacity to deliver all the targets for this goal but targets14.1 and 14.2 are particularly important. Target 14.1 requires that marine pollution of all kinds be significantly reduced by 2030. Target 14.2 requires that marine and coastal ecosystems be sustainably managed to avoid significant adverse impacts.The manual proposes a “Citizen Science” approach to monitoring supporting principle 2 of the “Ecosystem Approach” that “Management should be decentralized to the lowest appropriate level.” The manual contains 5 modules reflecting a process approach to problem solving. Each module is structured in the same way and comprises two main sections: A trainee materials section and Training for trainer notes section. The training for trainer notes section can be adjusted by national level trainers to provide a “Think global-Act local” approach. The two main sections are further divided into sub-sections on “Learning Points (key pieces of information to be learned)”, “Tools (equipment to be used)”, “Indicators of training (indicators of training uptake)”, “Further information (sources of further information)”, “Group exercise (use of knowledge gained through a group exercise)”, and “Training uptake test (test of knowledge gained)”. The five modules comprise:

 Module 1:  Purpose and key terms (justification and definitions)

Module 2: Monitoring causes (wastewater stressors)

Module 3: Monitoring effects (coral reef receptors)

Module 4: Information management

Module 5: Information use (including governance and advocacy for action)

Presentations were made in PowerPoint summarizing the structure and approach of the modules in the manual. Following each presentation the meeting broke into three multinational and mixed gender groups. Each group reviewed the presentation and 
a spokesperson then presented comments to the   workshop. The comments have subsequently been tabulated for inclusion in revision of the manual. The workshop included a half day field trip to view tourist boats moored on a coral reef. The drafts of the manual, the PowerPoint presentations and pictures of the workshop activities were provided to all participants on a DVD at the end of the workshop. The list of participants in the workshop is presented in Annex I. The itinerary for the workshop is presented in Annex II. The materials produced are listed in Annex III. Pictures from the workshop are presented in Annex IV. Proposed national-level follow-up actions resulting from the national group discussions forming National Citizen Science Groups to conduct monitoring according to the approach presented in the manual streamline that with regular ongoing monitoring activities and monitoring for Environmental Impact Studies as well as monitoring in the vents of incidents for the assessment of damages and suggesting compensations and remedy including rehabilitation of affected environments.

 Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan of the Egyptian Red Sea
Egypt PERSGA On-ground Project 2015 - 2016

Egypt is undergoing a major revision of management targeting sustainable resource use and maximizing their services and benefits. Coastal resources are amongst Egypt’s most valuable assets as they serve tourism, industry, transport and provide minerals and living resources. To this effect Egypt has early started coastal zone management planning. A National Strategy for Integrated Coastal Zone Management has also been developed. The National Strategy sets the basis for a National Workplan and defines the institutional and legal framework for developing integrated Coastal Zone management Plans. 
A recent Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan has been developed for the Mediterranean Sea Coast of Egypt. The current proposed project targets updating an Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan of the Egyptian Red Sea developed in 1998. The Project comes in continuation of an initiative started in collaboration between EEAA and PERSGA to update sensitivity maps of the Red Sea coastal area. It also integrates with an ongoing Project that is focusing on identifying the intertidal zone for the region between Marsa Alam and Hurghada. 

 Project Development Objective
The proposed project targets establishing updating a Coastal Zone Management Plan to guide inter-sectoral coastal zone management. This will be achieved through (i) revision of scientific inventories and analysis of resources as described in a database established in 1998 and (ii) incorporating new surveys, with a Geographic Information System (GIS) as an active planning tool. A final ICZM plan with policies for zoning and managing coastal and marine resources will be developed and approved by all concerned agencies.

 Project Partners
The Project will be executed by EEAA supported by PERSGA and will have other national Partners including the Shore Protection Agency, Tourism Development Authority and the Red Sea Governorate. 

Characteristics of the Target Area
Most of the Red Sea coast is bordered by more or less flat lands, 3-20 km wide, some of which look like depression. Behind these lands is a chain of mountains. To the south of Ras Banas the Red sea water intrudes into Egypt with a broad bay beyond which is a headland just into the sea(Ras Halayib). Banas bay is found at the mouth of the largest wadi reaching the Red Sea ,Wadi al –Hawdayn. The alignment of the Red Sea coast from northwest to southeast gives the eastern desert its extreme width in the south .from land, rocky headlands project into the sea(Ras Banas,Ras Ilba, Ras Gharib,  Ras Gimasa and Ras Hurghada). Along the coast parallel lines of coral reefs between 50 and 100 m wide are found. They increase in density and width southward. They are 250 m wide to the south of Marsa Allam . The bases of the coral reefs are found at depth of about 100m. The coastal plain lies between the Red sea mountains and the coast, it extends along the edge of the Gulf of Suez and the Red sea southward to the Egyptian-Sudanese boundary. The width of the coastal plain varies between 8-35 km, the surface of the plain covered with sand deposits brought by Wadis as Ghuwayba and Al-Hawdayn.
Development of the coastal zone management plan in 1998 incorporating establishing a database using a geographical information system (GIS). A digitized atlas of the Red Sea marine and terrestrial resources had also been prepared to aid in the understanding and management of resources. The GIS database and inventory of coastal and marine ecosystems, which provide valuable information on the project Area will be reactivated and continuously updated and made available to Government Agencies, Investors and Donors. In addition the project in 1998 produced a series of action plans, reports and documents. This included four core reports: Inception Report, Baseline  Report, Preliminary Coastal Zone Management Action Plan, the three major action plans (Reef Recreation Management Action Plan, Coastal Marine Protected Areas Strategy and the Integrated Coastal Zone Management Action Plan), and the Project Evaluation Report. All these reports will be revisited to provide background information for the Project

Legal Fram
ework and Approach
The Project will focus on collaboration between the different stakeholders comprising different government authorities, NGOs and the Private Sector. The legal frame work of the Project will build on three legal instruments:
Law No. 4 of 1994 on the protection of environment that constitutes the main legislative body in the field of environment. This supports formulation of  the general policy and preparation of the necessary plans for the protection and promotion of the environment, including the management of the coastal zone.
Law 102 of 1983, which provides the legislative framework for establishing and managing protected areas in Egypt.
The ‘Framework Program for the Development of National ICZM Plan for Egypt of 1996 and the established National Committee for Integrated Coastal Zone Management.




The Regional Organization for the Conservation of the Environment in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden